|Central european time|
|Central European Summer Time|
|Coordinated Universal Time|
(GMT can be considered equivalent to UTC, BST = UTC + 1h.
At the beginning of the summertime, the time is set forward from 1:00 to 2:00am.
At the end of summertime, the clock is set back from 2:00am to 1:00am.
During the autumn transition the hour from 1:00am to 2:00am elapses twice, these hours are referred to as 1A and 1B.
|Year||DST begins||DST ends|
|2016||27.03. 1:00:00 GMT||30.10. 2:00:00 BST|
|2017||26.03. 1:00:00 GMT||29.10. 2:00:00 BST|
|2018||25.03. 1:00:00 GMT||28.10. 2:00:00 BST|
|2019||31.03. 1:00:00 GMT||27.10. 2:00:00 BST|
The primary reason of the clock change is the more efficient use of the daylight.
Because the clocks are put forward while the summermonths, less energy should be spent bthe use of artifical light. The daylight is enough and must not be amended by artifical light.
First suggestions about the clock change did Benjamin Franklin in 1784, later in the 1st World War it was put into action, but in the postwar period it was abolished in most regions. In the oil crisis in 1973 the summertime was introduced again in a lot of countries, as well as in Germany in 1980.
According to current studies the objected reduction of energy consumption is disputable - to say the least. The majority of studies come to the conclusion that DST does not save energy and may even raise energy consumption. Although in some studies the use of artificial lighting is reduced, the achieved energy saving is overcompensated by a higher consumption of thermal energy. As electric light has become a lot more energy efficient compared to the relatively slow improvements in the efficency of the thermal energy production this effect is expected to increase.
Other studies show that the shift of one hour for a period of six months is an insufficient measure to reduce energy consumption as the raise of thermal energy consumption is particularly high during the beginning and the end of daylight savings time.
For the predominant period of DST the regular labour times are within the daylight period anyways, which means that energy saving is only achieved for private households and manufacturing industry with labour times out of the normal working hours.
As the latter is productive around the clock to a significant degree and often uses artificial light throughout the day due to constructional reasons the DST is entirely ineffective in this segment.
The biannual change of the official time interferes with the circadian rhythm of the population.
Once a year the majority of the people has to content with an hour less sleep in spring and has to begin the habitual circadian rythm one hour later in fall. The daylight saving time therefore has a considerable impact on the body clock, thus disturbing the wake-sleep-cycle similar to the so called Jetlag occuring after long-distance flights.
Particularly people already suffering from sleeping disorders are strained by the daylight savings time, where the shift to DST in spring leads to problems more frequently than the shift to regular time in fall. According to studies especially teenagers are afflicted with the shift to DST and need up to two weeks to accommodate to DST.
Overall up to 30% of the population declare to have problems with the DST-shift (and even more than 50% in our survey on this page). Apart from fatigue and problems with falling asleep, concentration difficulties and irritability are common complaints.
According to current case studies the effects of the time shift on health are negative, but the human organism is able to adapt relatively quick and the occuring problems are short-lived.
The consequences of the clock change for transport handling and traffic are almost negligible nowadays. While introducing, there were more problems because of variant arrangements in bordering countries and minor IT-capacities.
Subsequently are significant rises in certain accident statistics, but these are lead back to the health consequences above.
Besides waeriness, is being in a hurry a consequence of the clock change that increases the accident frequency as well.